On February 16, 2021, the Congressional Research Service released U.S.-China Trade Relations.
The report identifies several areas of congressional concern, stating:
"China’s use of industrial policies, subsidies, and regulatory authorities (e.g., antitrust, procurement, and standards) to advance economic, technological, and military development goals are of concern to many in Congress. Policies such as Made in China 2025 aim to create competitive advantages for China in strategic industries, in part by first obtaining technology and expertise from U.S. firms to gain core competencies. These policies appear to incentivize technology transfer, licensing, and joint venture requirements; state-directed technology and intellectual property (IP) theft; and government-fundedacquisitions of U.S. companies. Also of concern is potentially widespread Chinese economic, academic, and cyber-enabled espionage—including reports of cyberattacks on U.S. universities and companies engaged in COVID-19 vaccine research—and China's military-civil fusion program, which seeks to leverage Made in China 2025 advancements for military applications. There is growing attention to how U.S. commercial ties may support China's behaviors of concern, including in Hong Kong and Xinjiang."